There is some vacillation in the orthographic representation of this devoicing, sug- gesting to some that it may have been introduced after the original Bible translation. The view that they are a sort of prefix is also conveyed in the orthography. This being the case, the former cannot have been the direct cause of the latter. In nonfinal syllables, if the vowel of the nucleus is a long vowel or diphthong, then the preference for bimoraic syllables disfavors a coda consonant. .
This book presents a comparative linguistic survey of the full range of Germanic languages, both ancient and modern, including major world languages such as English and German West Germanic , the Scandinavian North Germanic languages, and the extinct East Germanic languages. This is espe- cially striking in light of the fact that other postnominal possessive phrases in West Scandinavian languages do not allow definite articles: 4. To some extent, though, they are matters of chronology. Since it is not computable from its parts, as Jackendoff 2002: 73 notes, the meaning of look up must be listed as an entry in our mental lexicons. Some general strat- egies emerge. Therefore, it was decided for present purposes to treat both the pre-modern members of the family and the living members of the family on a par, to the extent possible - as different variants on a common theme.
Birnbaum 1979: 250 : 4. In general, long vowels tend to be higher and tenser than the short vowels, and tend toward diphthongal realizations. The Isidor text demonstrates that the absence of pro-drop predates the emergence of V-2, and thus cannot depend on it. In the latter case, there is no semantic connection between 'seem' and its nominal subject. McWhorter attributes these changes to disruption of intergenerational transmission during the Danish conquest.
However, Haugen 1976: 82, 375f. In a language without gender as an inflectional category, of course, only the latter is possible: a masculine pronoun is used if the referent is a male animate being, feminine if a female animate being, and a neuter pronoun if the referent of the antecedent is not animate. The parallelism in their distribution suggests that possessive pronouns and proper names must share some categorial prop- erty. Though often classified as adjectives, they cannot switch places with descriptive adjectives, in the way that the latter can be reordered among themselves. The process is conventionally referred to as tough- movement because predicates of 'ease' and 'difficulty' are typical of the main-clause predicates which appear in these constructions. The range of structural variation among these varieties is thus relatively small in comparison with that found when nonstandard varieties are taken into account.
Thus, sentences like the following are impossible. A partial list of such words is given in Lass 1994: 181-182. However, when a descriptive adjective follows a weak quantifier, such as wenige 'few', einige 'some', etliche 'some', solche 'such', manche 'many a', viel 'many', it sometimes behaves as if the latter were also an adjective and inflects in parallel with it, but sometimes 138 4 The Germanic nominal system behaves as if the preceding weak quantifier were a determiner, and assumes a weak ending since the strong ending occurs on the weak quantifier. For example, it is proposed in Section 4. Among the best-known changes are: 3. Clements notes that coreference with these forms seems to involve primarily such discourse notions as point of view, rather than particular syntactic requirements, such as subject antecedents.
In the singular, gender distinctions are signaled in most positions in strong adjective paradigms though neuter and masculine are identical in oblique cases, but among the weak adjective endings, gender distinctions have been neutralized except in the accusative singular, where masculine adjectives have -en but neuter and feminine adjectives have -e. I have therefore decided to organize the discussion according to linguistic constructions and subsystems, rather than by languages. These instances of palatal- ization do not represent a single historical event; the assibilation in Ingvaeonic and that in Scandinavian belong to the historical periods of the individual languages. Examples in the present work are given in transliteration, following the conventions of the particular source from which the examples are cited. They differ in terms of their relationship to that antecedent, however.
Paradigmatic relation- ships are the relationships obtaining between an expression and other expressions which are substituted for it in different contexts. It is a selectional feature, important for conditioning the morphological realizations of other forms with which the noun appears in a syntagmatic or paradigmatic relationship. The ball rolled down the hill b. Thus, next to Acl sentences like 4. Mitchell 1985: I, 119 , it was lost from the language of prose. Moreover, har and harsels in reflexive use stand in a partially complementary distribution, some contexts allowing only one and others allowing only the other Tiersma 1999: 60f. It is also the reason that they have only a single inflectional past tense, and do not distinguish between preterite and imperfect, for example.
Such an a priori limitation would simply not work in a study in which the main focus is the range of grammatical phenomena found in the Germanic languages, since, as we will be seeing, the family abounds in highly interesting and sometimes widespread linguistic developments which happen only to be found in nonstandard varieties. Authoritative and comprehensive, this much-needed survey will be welcomed by scholars and students of the Germanic languages, as well as linguists across the many branches of the field. Evidence of the impossibility of this interpretation is provided by that fact that, where the Greek text has a personal pronoun e. Sig selv must refer to the closer subject: 4. That choice in turn determines several other features of the organization of the volume. Sandstrom 2000 attempts to sort out the staging of this change from three genders to two by reference to some complex cross-dialectal variation in dialects of S W spoken in Finland, some of which retain three genders, some of which have only two, and some, interestingly, which seem to observe a three-gender system for some purposes choice of clitic definite articles but a two-gender system for other purposes bound pronoun choice Sandstrom 2000: 798. So, for example, in the following, at-tekan 'touch' and andbahtjan 'serve' require dative case on their sole objects.