The leaves were selected for uniform age and size and divided into groups of equal number, usually about 30, and equal initial fresh weight. Alkaloids in Grafts In 1885 Strasburger 66 grafted thornapple cuttings upon potato stocks and afterwards had the tubers examined for alkaloids. The ions resulting from the cleavage of the C-7-C-20 bond of songorine are presented in pathways A and B. This proved to be identical in melting point, crystalline form as observed under the microscope, and specific rotation with retronecanone oxime, and the melting points of mixtures of the two compounds showed no depression. Vertine increases blood glucose level 94 and lowers mean blood pressure 100. The N M R spectrum established the presence of three methoxyl groups and two para-oriented aromatic protons.
A similar rearrangement has been also observed in atisine, kobusine, napelline, and other terpenoids containing a methylene group at C-16 and a C-15 P-hydroxyl group. The synthesis of dl-2-methylpyrrolizidine and dl-1-methylpyrrolizidine was carried out by Men'shikov 14, 16 in order to compare these products with the optically active heliotridane. The absolute stereochemistry was not determined since a correlation between 36 and cocculidine 54 through their dihydro derivatives was not possible because 1. References Page 98 99 101 101 103 104 I. Alkaline hydrolysis of ignavine gave an amino alcohol, anhydroignavinol, and benzoic acid.
In the tropane group, l-hyoscyamine predominates in A. Erythrartine was deduced to be 1l-hydroxyerysotrine 18 on spectroscopic evidence 43. Protein breakdown occurs whether the leaves are narcotized or not. Since, however, the plants were kept in the dark, the transpiration rate was probably subnormal and translocation may or may not have occurred. The presence of an imine group in the A unit of these alkaloids was consistent with the observed downfield ' 2.
The latter on acetylation with acetyl chloride afforded diacetylmiyaconine 146. The data were consistent with structure 83 for this alkaloid, which is therefore homo-2,7-dihydroerysovine 84. Further oxidation of 63 with chromic acid by the Jones method gave the yellow tetraketone 68. The structure of the latter, a minor hydrogenation product of ent-kaurene 14 ,was based on the behavior of ent-kaurene during catalytic hydrogenation. From Oxford Medicinal Plants Scheme 33. Alkaloids of Picralima and Alstonia Species B Y J.
Alkaloids Unclassified and of Unknown Structure B Y R. Yohimbine and Related Alkaloids B Y H. Base A was also obtained from cuscohygrine by an entirely different reaction. Tetrahydroisatinecine was unstable toward alkaline permanganate. These results showed that where two diastereoisomers are possible in the pyrrolidine degradation products, each should be synthesized before structural deductions, by comparison of the melting points of the picrates, are justified.
Confirmation of this structure for stachydrine is to be found in the preparation of this betaine from the action of moist silver oxide on the methiodide of ethyl hygrinate 50. Yunusov and colleagues 62 analyzed the mass spectra and their derivatives. Glutamic acid, arginine, a-amino-n-valeric acid and glycine, on the other hand, gave no clear indication of nicotine formation. Isoretronecanol was oxidized by means of chromic anhydride to an optically active amino acid, CsH13N02 m. Abnormal Alkaloids from Cocculus Species Only 3 of the 12 species of Cocculus Menispermaceae have been examined for alkaloids and most studies have concerned C. .
Thus, in 3 hr atisine acetate was isolated, in 12 hr a mixture of atisine and isoatisine was formed, and in 24 hr only isoatisine was obtained. You can reading by R. Its glycoside constitution might appear to offer an explanation of the effect, but the most effective radiation appears to lie in the ultraviolet rather than in the photosynthetically efficient ranges. The crude alkaloid residue was recrystallized twice from absolute ethanol to obtain monocrotaline in pure form; yield, 65 g. The elucidation of the structure of these isomeric necines will be considered historically in terms of the determination of the functional groups present, the basic ring structure, and the positions of the functional groups in the molecule.
Some of the early reactions applied to stachydrine 42 , although somewhat drastic, pointed to the presence of a dimethylamino grouping and a pyrrolidine nucleus in this alkaloid. The actual occurrence of alkaloids in all such tissues has been described in Section I1 a. Among the score of amino acids commonly obtainable from plant proteihs, a few suggest themselves on chemical grounds as being particularly likely precursors of alkaloids. Weak reactions observed with general alkaloid precipitants were probably due to solanine and its allies. A useful catalogue of Czoditerpenoid alkaloids is also included.