The E-mail message field is required. Discourses do not carry meaning so much as perform specific functions, particularly in the socio-political domain in which education is located Allan, 1999. As will become clear, though, it is by no means the case that when a new discourse is introduced, the previous one disappears. One domain where this seems to be demonstrated is in the terminology of kinship. The book can form the basis of a module on a course for experienced language teachers, or be incorporated into a longer pre-service training course for novice teachers. Awareness of their strengths and weaknesses and the challenges that these learners face in the academic and private domains is a prerequisite for developing supportive and caring teacher attitudes and behaviour, and for establishing an accommodating classroom environment.
It is not the intention in this chapter to prescribe how teachers should use language, or which discourse choices should be made. This book is sure to be a winner! Views of Disability in Education -- Introduction -- interaction between language and thought -- Models of disability reflected in discourses -- medical discourse -- legal discourse -- discourse of social construction -- Discourses of disability in educational settings -- Inclusive discourses of disability -- Labelling and self-identification -- Challenging dominant discourses -- Summary of key points -- Activities -- Recommended reading -- 2. It is over a hundred and thirty years since it was documented that people of apparently average intelligence in other fields could experience difficulties in manipulating symbolic representations of speech, music or numbers. It is, thus, highly recommended for foreign language teachers and anybody interested in literacy issues, test designers and program administrators. In 1970 these terms disappeared from official usage Rogers, 1980 , but of the generations of teachers who had been trained using this discourse, it is hard to imagine that all would immediately find it easy to embrace the idea that every child could — and should — be able to access education. However, on perceiving a colour, we assign it to the nearest category that we have a label for, and describe it in those terms.
Transition and Progression -- Introduction -- Factors that cause stress in transition -- Environmental and physical transitions -- Academic and cognitive challenges of transition -- Social demands of transition -- Psychological transitions -- Strategies that students and their families can implement -- Strategies that the existing institution can implement -- Developing personal qualities and academic skills -- Good communication -- Independence -- Career advice -- What receiving institutions can do to facilitate transition -- Phased in transition -- Reassessment of support requirements -- Information -- Moving on to employment -- Conclusion -- Summary of key points -- Activities -- Further reading -- Appendices -- Appendix 1 -- Appendix 2 -- Appendix 3 -- Appendix 4 -- Appendix 5 -- Appendix 6. The interaction between language and thought The exact role that language plays in shaping our thoughts has long been debated by linguists, anthropologists and psychologists, but opinions are still divided as to the nature of the relationship between language and thought Slobin, 2003. A discourse of social construction The view of disability as a socially constructed barrier is one that has gained wide acceptance over the last twenty years. She is the editor of the volume Language Learners with Special Needs: An International Perspective. Individual chapters could also be used independently as part of an ongoing professional development programme, or for self-study by individuals. In the sense that the injustice of discrimination against people with disabilities is seen as socially created, this draws upon a social constructionist way of thinking.
This book is sure to be a winner!. The remainder of the book charts the journey typical of a language learner who experiences these difficulties. It can be used a core text, forming the basis of a course, or as supplementary reading to extend existing courses. In some countries these learners are seen to have a learning disability, but in this book we will show that perceiving them as different rather than deficient in certain skills and abilities helps us understand these learners better and assists in their successful inclusion in the language classroom. She is the editor of the volume Language Learners with Special Needs: An International Perspective. It will become clear throughout this book that a range of discourses is used, according to the topic under discussion.
It is organised into short evenlength chapters and readers are not overloaded with technical linguistic jargon, even when cognitive processes are being described. Perhaps it will never be possible to say definitively whether language exerts more influence over thought, or vice versa; most likely it is a cyclical process, which starts as language use develops and continues throughout a person's life see Figure 1. She was the principal investigator of a research and teacher training project on the language learning processes of dyslexic and Deaf learners in Hungary. It is organised into short evenlength chapters and readers are not overloaded with technical linguistic jargon, even when cognitive processes are being described. Formal diagnostic reports typically document their statistical findings in scientific language that many people find opaque particularly those dyslexic people who find any reading onerous. She is the editor of the volume Language Learners with Special Needs: An International Perspective. Since the 1980s, alternative models that take a more socio-cultural view of disability have been gaining strength, and their associated discourses are becoming more familiar.
The discourse of this model places the emphasis on disabling factors in society and the environment, rather than locating any difficulties in the individual. Index Preface Whereas language learning comes easily and effortlessly to some people, many students struggle with the acquisition of languages. That is not to say that they cannot perceive the variations in shade — colour perception is essentially a biological phenomenon, which language does not determine. Politicians and military tacticians have long known that during wartime language plays a crucial role in influencing public opinion and boosting the morale of the troops. This has been the case throughout history, and has been well documented in the field of education, particularly with reference to disability.
This may well have caused difficulties in communication between parents and teachers, educational psychologists and students Norwich, 1990. Most known languages divide the spectrum into a maximum of eleven distinct colour terms; English is one example of a language that has eleven terms Dowman, 2007. This is now reserved for a specific visual disturbance phenomenon in which the reader perceives the text to be distorted or moving. The cause of language learning difficulties can be manifold, but one group of people who find language learning particularly challenging are those who tend to be different in their general approach to learning from the majority of other students. The book is accessible to all types of language teachers, from the most experienced to the novice, and explores a wide range of themes. Contents: Foreword; Chapter 1 Views of Disability in Education; Chapter 2 What Is Dyslexia? Author Biography Judit Kormos is a senior lecturer at the Department of Linguistics and English Language, Lancaster University. The authors provide a sound understanding of the strategies needed to ensure that all subjects are made accessible.
What does seem likely is that changes in terminology would have been adopted even if not fully internalized more readily by the educational and medical professionals than by lay-people. The power that carefully chosen language has to change the way we perceive a situation is clear. A range of different cognitive functions for example, visuo-spatial and phonological processing are presented as indices, with standardized scores, confidence intervals and percentiles given. The condition that is generally called dyslexia among medical professionals and lay-people alike is not easy to define precisely see Chapter 2 for more on this. A common practice in the field of language teaching has been to exempt these students from foreign language learning on the grounds that the successful attainment of L2 competence is beyond their reach, and the time spent in the language classroom might be better used for the development of first language skills.
Their argument is that the language used merely reflects what is important to the speech community using it. It suggests strategies that can be implemented to enable learners to succeed both in the classroom and in formal assessment. Teaching languages to students with specific learning differences. Put simply, the question is whether language fundamentally determines our view of the world, or only reflects it. Her research interests include the assessment of cognitive functioning in multilingual learners. This medical model of disability focussed on physical or cognitive abnormality and informed many developments in the British education system. Dominant discourses tend to reflect and further the interests of the powerful for example, policy makers and professional bodies , while competing discourses seek to challenge this power structure and refocus the discussion, usually in favour of the oppressed or less powerful in this case, these might be disabled students and their families and advocates.