It is as if his language indicates a truth about these ritualized bonds that the speaker recognizes only unconsciously: under the aegis of a beautiful equality, serious discrepancies in social and political status are masked. What I am suggesting is that Forster creates a third: Maurice, the unremarkable youth being transformed into the unassimilable outsider, surrounded by loneliness and characterized in terms that resonate with darkness, fear, and disconsolation. This spirit of equality works at two levels: it implies equality between men; and, relatedly, it thrives only in political conditions that enable and perpetuate liberty. The names of Burton and Speke, for instance, were almost inevitably conjoined, as a result of their famous 1857 expedition in search of the source of the Nile, and they seemed to epitomize the idea of exploration as a shared endeavor, even though their actual relationship became one of extreme personal animosity. They were common everyday words — the familiar, vague sounds exchanged on every waking day of life. Given the paucity of inter-racial precedents, and the moral bankruptcy of all British institutions in India, the novel seems unable to come up with any other organizing precept that might function as a forum for real intimacy, cultural accommodation, and political change.
Cole argues that these dramas of compelling and often tortured male friendship have generated a particular voice within the literary canon. The novel asks how men can make, keep, encourage, develop, and extend their intimate ties under the regime of colonization, and whether there are institutions that might protect and stabilize these bonds, to prevent the slow creation of the lost soul we saw in The Longest Journey and Maurice. Symonds looks to trace an impressive genealogy of male friendship in part because he believes that the western tradition since the middle ages has ignored friendship as an essential category of human relations and passion. When that strange race nears the dust and is condemned as untouchable, then nature remembers the physical perfection that she accomplished elsewhere, and throws out a god — not many, but one here and there, to prove to society how little its categories impress her. The Broken Road tells the story of two men whose intertwined fate is developed even before their birth, in the friendship of their fathers. For Helen Smith, a similar spirit of queerness and restlessness is afoot, but, in her account, the transformations wrought by war are even more extreme and absolute, and are shared by women. Eton and Oxford are both credited and blamed for shielding boys from the racial and sexual drama that constitutes masculinity and political reality in the text.
As a corrective, Symonds offers an elaborate comparison between Greek friendship conventions and medieval chivalry. Oaths are essential to the community of friends that Rickie, Ansell, and Stephen uneasily erect, an experimental social form that depends for its durability on a certain amount of institutionalization. The state of romance is connected with the physical health of the body, suggesting that masculine enervation results when romance and its literary forms have declined. Moreover, the colonial situation demands that if male bonds are not functioning to uphold British dominion, then they must be reconstituted as male rivalry, enabling the white man to re exert control. Implicit in this discussion has been a third mode, which involves a fundamental gulf between men and women, where domesticity and femininity are banished to their own sphere, embodied by two spectral women.
As we have seen, the novel follows two oppositional directives, neither of which takes much account of Seraphina as an individual in her own right. A single machine-gun or a few shells might wipe out the whole picture within a week. Nevertheless, he who can utter this solipsistic cry is in a position to inherit a powerful literary and ethical legacy, and to speak, in a sense, for modernity. Dalloway, both the war and its representative mark a disruption, an impossibility, because, for this novel, to be arrested in time is a death sentence. Yet, I would suggest that for Forster, such an in-between state itself constitutes a kind of modernity, as the death of homoerotic hope contributes to an image of the modern individual, thwarted and alone. All of them had been through a mill of prolonged inconceivable pressures and innumerable tearing teeth.
If male friendship is an institution connected with the history of imperialism, then its rituals cannot survive the ideological break with imperialism. Such scenes were in fact relatively sparse, given the enormous scale and slow pace of the demobilization, yet their public resonance was powerful, perhaps disproportionate to the actual events. Or, to use my own terms, the war began in comradeship and ended in killed-friendship. No, it is not friendship. Far from being a site of great intimacy, the war fostered distance and self-protectiveness. In the background one soldier helps another climb over a parapet; the foreground depicts a parallel image of two strong men working together on a welding project.
Moreover, whatever one may say about the artistic merit of Uranian literature, Symonds felt exhilarated when he discovered their work, and his writing in turn contributes to the canon of celebratory literature on male love. With its direct recollection of the earlier depiction of Newgate, the language here establishes an unbroken continuum from the debilitating imprisonment of mass culture to the strangulation of modern domesticity. Invoking the authority of the founding fathers of the fellowship-as-politics ideal, Paine conveys a sense of slumbering masses, ready to be galvanized into concerted action. And the varnish peels off easily when the man comes back to an Indian sun. The conventional notion, for instance, that the war ushered in a socio-cultural watershed the literary-historical version of which I have just outlined has given way in recent years, and many cultural historians now argue that the long-term effects of the war, across a range of categories, were ultimately minimal.
If Jim took the lead, the other had captivated his leader. The poet speaks for, in lieu of, the silent man, simultaneously representing and eclipsing him. It is perhaps ironic that the feminist Brittain, painfully aware of the oppressive mechanisms of patriarchy, offers some of the most famous and empathetic articulations of the lost generation. In addition to Bennett, Stanley weaves the famous explorers of the past into his masculine mosaic, recalling a tradition of great men in whose steps he follows, as he, in turn, should be followed by others. As with any important and complex human endeavor, friendship can and should be examined, theorized, and historicized. Owen effects this fusion of the personal with the impersonal through his iconography of the human body. Indeed, by the middle of the century, the Indian Civil Service was tightly bound with the major British universities, primarily Oxford and Cambridge, where a select number of ambitious Indian civil servants were educated.
Eros is up and away! With the war as the great event shadowing his work, his texts repeatedly dramatize the promise of organized intimacy devolving into solitary struggle, as the goal of replacing the family with a fraternal paradise yields not plenitude, but impoverishment. These conventions utilize an abstract and consciously modern vocabulary to concentrate on the relation between civilians and the dead, a fact that troubled at least some contemporaries. Put crudely, the notion is that friendship between Indian and English men, if properly structured and organized, helps to consolidate colonial rule. Conrad relished the imperial encounter, his texts enact its dramas in ever-elaborating forms, and I shall argue that its fate is centrally tied to his particular exposition of modernity; the fact that this structure was equally tied to the high Victorian account of imperial work will be central to my Conradian alienation and imperial intimacy 97 argument. What happens as the novel progresses is that the forms of structured intimacy that were imagined and nurtured in two poignant interludes are stripped of their standing in the world, reduced to a form of bereavement that closely mirrors rather than transforming and aestheticizing the grief of the tortured combatant in war. The gorgeousness of the young body and the pathos of friendship themselves become the standards whereby value is measured, and this signals the apex of an ultra-civilized culture.
The assembled mob destroyed most of the station, freed their men, D. Beginning as early as 1915, military and civilian organizations were forced to confront the issue of mental breakdown, for cases multiplied on a scale entirely unprecedented in earlier wars. Given the near-hysterical fear of Bolshevism that the Russian revolution inspired in many English conservatives, this concern over former soldiers as potential revolutionaries is perhaps not surprising. And directly, it seemed to me, I had stepped back three hundred years. In a sense, Charles Linforth and Shere Ali function like an ill-fated couple in a standard marriage plot: meant by their parents for one another, they undo that pre-ordained order, trumped by the realities of character and history. Lawrence and the Aftermath of War Bodies of men: the landscape of post-war England, 14. Rather, both existed throughout the decade — two cultures, separate and mistrustful of each other, a conservative culture that clung to and asserted traditional values, and a counter-culture, rooted in rejection of the war and its principles.