The southern expansion across the Danube into the Byzantine empire, and subsequent divisions, account for the southern Slavs - Bulgarians, Macedonians, Serbs, Croats and Slovenians. This confined all discussion to no earlier than 2350 b c or about 1 ,656 years after the Creation when the families of Noah and his sons disembarked from the Ark and set out to populate the world. Links between this region and Southeast Europe, especially in ceramics - including figurines - and architecture, have long been known, and until the past few decades generally attributed to an expansion of Near Eastern high culture to European barbarians. Flint saw near the bottom. The elm could be Proto-Indo- European and here we have a tree whose use would probably include foddering livestock.
He talked a lot about the sorts of evidence that are available, and whether that evidence is trustworthy. He then expanded his attention to the other languages of Eurasia by comparing their words for the basic numerals under the perfectly sound linguistic principle that 'numbers being convenient to every nation, their names were most likely to continue nearly the same, even though other pJrts of languages might be liable to change and alteration'. But the Germanic Old Norse bok and Latin fagus forms mean 'beech' while the Slavic Russian buzina indicates 'elder', and Albanian bunge and Doric Greek phagos mean 'oak'. Since the historical record itself begins in Asia, this is where we will first take up their trail. But from early in the second millennium bc we find unequivocal evidence for both the horse and the chariot, and by the seventeenth-sixteenth centuries this form of warfare is found from northern Anatolia south to Nubia, which illustrates the rapid spread of this revolutionary technology. More importantly, Schleicher's model failed to explain many linguistic relations that were transparent even to a nineteenth-century linguist. It was then left to Noah's third son Japhet to father much of the remaining human race and hence it was not uncommon to lump the early peoples and languages of Europe under the name Japhetic.
The major representative of the western Baltic languages, Old Prussian, became extinct by about ad 1700. There have been those who would argue that the reconstructed forms are founded on reasonably substantiated linguistic observations and that a linguist, projected back into the past, could make him or herself understood among the earlier speakers of a language. In the sted of pasture he sett me ther. The only available historical reference beyond this period is Herodotus who speaks of a people known as the Neuri. Although the meaning of some of these words evolved into that of 'city', their original reference to merely a fortified high place is reasonably secure Greek akropolis 'high fort' , and we may imagine that some form of fortified settlement or refuge existed in the Proto-Indo-European landscape. There is something I find enchanting about the Indo-Europeans.
Means of propulsion is limited to a set of cognates indicating oars. The best one can generally say is that one scenario is more likely than another. By this time they had often abandoned those parts of their vocabulary that they no longer needed and the remaining trace of a particular Proto-Indo-European word may be left in only a handful of languages. Fascinating overview of linguistic and archaeological evidence for who the Indo-Europeans were and where they came from. That the proto-Armenians were intrusive into their historical home is confirmed by the fact that they came to occupy the territory of the Urartians, the powerful kingdom of Van which flourished from the ninth to the sixth centuries bc and left abundant textual evidence that they were non-Indo-European speakers. Indo-European languages are indicated in italics; non-Indo-European languages are in upper case.
The earliest Baltic texts appear quite late when compared with most other Indo-European languages. One of the best candidates for intruding Indo-Aryans is to be found north of the Indus in the Swat Valley, which gives its name to the culture otherwise known as the Gandhara Grave culture. Nor, of course, is there any prima-facie case for assuming that the expansion of the dark wares indicates a population movement much less a specifically Indo-Aryan movement. There is also note of a common structure attributed to important or final battles such as Kurukshettra in the Mahabharatta, the Ragnarok, the 2nd Battle of Mag Tured Irish , and others. I pretty much droned out reading the section about the archeology of the Proto-Indo-Europeans but I did take away from it that the Corded ware people became a substrate for the development of the indo-europeans in northern europe. He doesn't only depend on the linguistics but also on the archeology and what is known of the history of Proto-Indo-European culture.
While we might wish to turn now to a universally accepted model of the development of the Indo-European languages, unfortunately, all subsequent attempts to depict the interrelationships of the Indo-European languages invariably collapse into the two dimensionality of Schleicher or Schmidt, albeit updated with far more information and vastly more complex articulations. The Goths had migrated from the north into the Black Sea region where they ruled until the arrival of the Huns in the fourth century ad who pushed most of the Gothic tribes westward into the Balkans. Still undeeiphered, possibly undecipherable, the lan- guage of the sc ripts most likely belongs to the Elamo-Dravidian family. Their handmade black ware is known from numerous sites, including the ancient Hittite capital at Hattusa and the Phrygian's own capital of Gordion. For the actual origins of the Armenian people we must rely on the evidence of their language, the historical testimony of their neighbours and predecessors, and archaeology.
They then expanded as part of the Hurrian movement into northern Mesopotamia where we have already alluded to their subsequent history. This is now much disputed, although Italic is regularly included with the other West European languages. Old English Drihten me raet, ne byth me nanes godes wan. That these sites also include what would later become major urban centres coincides w ell with their identity as early Indo-Aryan settlements which rapidly spread their language in northern India. By the middle of the first millennium ad the Irish had developed their own script ogham for inscribing grave memorials. They have been found on sites as far east as Tepe Yahya and Shahr-i Sokhta. Joachim Werner, on the other hand, regards the Chernyakovo culture as exclusively Germanic and places the Slavs further north in the forest, unable to push southwards until the Huns eliminated Gothic settlement and power in the forest steppe in the fourth century ad, while Valentin Sedov sees the northern region of the Chernyakovo culture as the area w here Iranians and Slavs achieved their sy mbiosis.
None of these inscriptions predates the third century bc. There are other possibilities but these are the most accepted. This continuity sufficed to justify the theory that the Slavs originated in this very region before expanding south and eastwards. I wonder the significance of the orientation and the direction. Finally, the area makes an excellent fit with the geographical scene depicted in the hymns of the Rig Veda and it does so at the expected time. .
This can be demonstrated by the continuity of settlement and cemetery practices which are as much in evidence here as between the Jastorf culture and the historical period, but we cannot really penetrate beyond this and still hope to retain the name Proto-Germanic in a linguistically meaningful sense. Others prefer to view the reconstructions as merely convenient formulas that express the linguistic histories of the various languages in the briefest possible manner. In the west emerged the Poles, Czechs and Slovaks. The reader is introduced into the nature of language change and the methods of reconstruction of older language stages, with many examples from the Indo-European languages. Further east were the Slavs and north were the Baltic tribes.