Gas Migration is the first book to accumulate, analyze and apply the interdisciplinary knowledge on gas migration and detail its connection to tectronic, seismic, and geologic phenomena. It combines geological, geochemical, geophysical, seismological, and petroleum engineering insights to demonstrate how gas migration and its associated phenomena can be used in earthquake and environmental geohazard identification and prediction. The smooth components in the recorded curves are assumed to be those strongly correlated with actual variations of the formation pressure. When encountering faults and fractured zones, this free gas may migrate toward the surface. The authors believe that recent global warming of Earths atmosphere is not due to an increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide emission but rather to long-term global factors. Discussion of the formation and accumulation of hydrocarbons includes 1 the changes in the chemical composition of hydrocarbons that originate from the debris of living plants and organisms to form crude oil and natural gas; 2 the origin of hydrocarbons in different areas of a single reservoir; 3 the conditions, which determine the distribution of water, oil and gas in the reservoir; 4 the migration of subsurface fluids until they eventually accumulate in isolated traps; 5 discussion of the traps as a function of sedimentary geology and tectonics.
His scientific publications have included the environmental hazards associated with oil and gas migration. Upward gas mobility depends on the distribution and geometry of vertically and subvertically oriented fractures, faults and their permeability, which depends on their width, formation and rock pressure, and history of seismictectonic processes in the region of study. He has been awarded three gold medals and many international honors for his work. The methodology includes estimation of smooth components in all curves, estimation of factors, and extraction of the fast, lithological component via joint processing of several formation pressure and lithological indicators. This is based on the systems approach to the specific geologic and geochemical systems using analytical and statistical principles and examples of modern mathematical modeling of static and dynamic systems. Thus, the joint use of both techniques may result in a more reliable forecast of future production. Modern purging technologies are based on the chemical and biological degradation of contaminants and their conversion to safe forms or to intermediate substances convenient for transport in soils.
Each of the recorded curves is described by two groups of parameters: variables defining properties of the basic components and factors with which the components are included in a given indicator. Using the adiabatic model developed by the famous Russian Scientist, Dr. The writers show that recent global warming of the Earth's atmosphere is not due to increase in the man-induced carbon dioxide emission but rather to the long term global factors such as increased solar activity. Fundamental aspects of petroleum geology and geochemistry, generation, migration, accumulation, evaluation and production of hydrocarbons are discussed with worldwide examples. The methodology is based on the assumption that the process of sedimentation accumulation of sediments causes rock compaction, which in turn leads to increased flow of fluids from the underlying formations shales, etc.
This, together with the latest advances in biodegradation of the eighties and nineties, led to the development of sophisticated multicomponent remediation technologies. Oilfields have demonstrated a long history of gas migration problems. Fluid movement within a basin depends primarily on pressure variation. Having analyzed the processes of heat transfer in the atmosphere, the writers developed the adiabatic theory of the greenhouse effect, which was applied for analysis of climatic changes on the Earth. As computers continue to become faster and more robust, all disciplines are moving from qualitative analysis to quantification. Gas or water injection can also result in fracturing of the subsurface formations due to overpressurizing the formations and earthquakes.
Modeling geological history is no exception. The influence of changes in climate on formation of mineral deposits and development of life on Earth was considered and presented based on modeling of typical climatic regimes. In some areas, such as Texas, helium may also be present. Another goal is to attract attention of the researchers to the key problems and bottlenecks of the theoretical foundations and mathematical modeling of remediation processes. Both types of methods work in terms of true and false discovery rates.
Comparative analysis of Monte Carlo and block bootstrap simulation indicates that these methods are characterized by different widths of the uncertainty regions and by a certain mutual shift of predicted production curves. At the present time, there is no sound justification for the cut in the man-induced carbon dioxide emission as required by the Kyoto Protocol of 1997. The second is pollution control - an area of oilfield management which has assumed widespread importance in recent years. There are two phenomena of interest: changes in the electrical resistivity as a result of the rock stress alteration and generation of electrical fields by piezoelectric effect. Grid search and iterative minimization worked equally well on all tested models. Research on earthquake prediction has been based on the analysis of seismicity over large territories. La anterior opinión pertenece a un grupo de investigadores de origen ruso, liderizado por el académico O.
He has over 100 publications worldwide in Mathematical Modeling of Environmental Processes, Control Theory, Probability and Statistics. The experiments involved application of direct electrical current for acceleration of the flow of solutions in soils. The absorption occurs due to dissociation of the oxygen and nitrogen molecules to atoms, whereas the spectrum of absorption of ozone is located within the range of infrared radiation of the sun. The remainder are nonhydrocarbon gases, such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and, sometimes, small quantities of hydrogen sulfide. Comparison of these estimates with the corresponding anthropogenic effects shows that the human-induced climatic changes are negligible with respect to global forces of nature. The Monte-Carlo method was used to model seismic velocities in shaly sands defined by a pair of linear equations with randomized coefficients.
It shows how the process of Earth's core separation has led to formation and evolution of the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Because these gas parameters are detectable and measurable, they provide an early warning of seismic activity. Wave velocity ratio is also discussed in this chapter. There is some evidence that electrical rock properties change when the stresses applied to the rock are altered. Currently, a combined neural net based prediction of upward gas mobility, ground subsidence, and seismic activity in seismically active regions is under development by the authors.
As Tversky and Kahneman have demonstrated through a series of experiments conducted over many decades, we human beings, rather than being fully rational in our judgments, oftentimes make unwarranted leaps of faith e. Because these gas parameters are detectable and measurable, they provide an early warning of seismic activity. Topics include- · Tectonics and Earthquakes · Gas Migration at Plate Boundaries · Surface Soil-Gas Surveys · Faults and Petroleum Reservoirs · Earthquake Precursors · Whispering Gases · Paths and Mechanics of Gas Migration · Subsidence, Gas Migration, and Seismic Activity · And much more With this information, environmental specialists, civil engineers, petroleum geologists, seismologists, and urban planners now have a new and powerful conceptual basis and tool for understanding and perhaps even predicting gas explosions and earthquakes. The intense rainstorms around the world will become more frequent. The real shield is oxygen. A single integral parameter is developed the values of which discriminate one of the three possible scenarios: formation pressure development, increased in time, remained unchanged, or decreased in time. A warm period in the second half of Mesozoic was associated with the formation of the Pangaea supercontinent and intensified oxygen generation, which compensated for the lowered nitrogen partial pressure.