Ontology engineering offers a direction towards solving the interoperability problems brought about by semantic obstacles, such as the obstacles related to the definitions of business terms and software classes. Abstract We are surrounded by collective phenomena, with examples existing on many levels of granularity. In this article, we presented an ongoing doctoral work that focus on the Web knowledge representation available with domain ontologies and processing of this knowledge autonomously through a systematic evaluation and redesign of the ontology. Fundamental distinctions, such as universals vs. Abstract Medical research and clinical practice deal with complex and heterogeneous data. In this paper, we compare the dichotomy between reasoning and representation to the philosophical distinction between epistemology and ontology. Abstract Formal ontology relies on representation languages for expressing ontologies.
Additionally, the integration result has to be consistent and provide connections between the integrated ontologies. And, as the need for integrating research in these different fields arises, so does the realisation that strong principles for building well-founded ontologies might provide significant advantages over ad hoc, case-based solutions. In this paper we investigate the computational properties of reasoning with mappings between homogeneous as well as heterogeneous elements in distributed ontologies, and an effective decision procedure for reasoning with multiple ontologies bridged with both forms of mappings. We argue that universality through ontologies can potentially perpetuate homogenization of concepts, thus contributing to assimilation of Indigenous peoples. Knowledge is represented as a set of rules. Then, it describes the specifications of mereology modeling necessities for Pharmaceutical Product.
Given the complexity of the project, a huge importance has been placed on software integration, task planning and architecture definition since the first stages of the work: to this aim, some of the practices commonly used in the commercial domain for software integration, such as merging software from the early stage, have been applied. As the clinicians speak and think in a very different language than that of the computer scientists, existing knowledge engineering approaches based on classical expert interviews fall short. The granularity of spatial calculi and the resulting mathematical properties have always been a major question in solving spatial tasks qualitatively. While there is a large body of previous work focused on WordNet-based for finding the semantic similarity of concepts and words, the application of these word oriented methods to ontology integration tasks has not been yet explored. It is easily conjectured that, soon, real-world ontologies will not fit into main memory anymore. As a concrete example of ontology-based information retrieval, we finally report an ongoing experience of use of a large linguistic ontology for the retrieval of object -oriented software components.
Empirical experiments carried on real clinical records and using a standard medical ontology show that our methods are able to preserve the semantic features of nominal data significantly better than standard permutation mechanisms. These standards, their construction, implementation, use, and maintenance are then highly relevant as modern clinical practice evolves. For the first time in its history, the conference hosted a special track: an ontology competition, the aim of which was to encourage authors to make their ontologies publicly available and to allow them to be evaluated according to a set of predetermined criteria. The inference process is based on bottom-up control forward chaining. After discussing the major families of role conceptualizations, we present our own basic definition and demonstrate how it naturally accounts for many modelling issues, including multiple and dynamic classification, object collaboration, polymorphism, and substitutability.
Geralmente, as ontologias de alto nível são usadas como base ou ponto de partida para a construçconstruç˜construção de ontologias sobre domínios específicos, tal que essá e uma prática científica bem aceita na literatura dá area. A series of revisions to Allen's theory is proposed in order to accommodate this possibility. In this work he draws on famous authors of Roman times such as Livius, Vergil, Pliny, as well as Ptolemy. A set of ontologies for a typical industrial enterprise has been built, which ensures the coordination of various enterprises activities. We also describe a methodology for conflict in ontology integration process. Philosophers are less concerned with establishing fixed, controlled vocabularies than are researchers in computer science, while computer scientists are less involved in discussions of first principles such as debating whether there are such things as fixed essences, or whether entities must be ontologically more primary than processes.
In addition, we show the formal relationship between the axiomatization of mereology in both upper-level ontologies. Finally, we describe our experiences in using the Enterprise Ontology. The purpose of this paper is to defend the systematic introduction of formal ontological principles in the current practice of knowledge engineering, to explore the various relationships between ontology and knowledge representation, and to present the recent trends in this promising research area. Pour intégrer cette composante dans les approches existantes, nous nous basons sur les modèles mathématiques associés aux ordres partiels. We sketch a specific application of this semantics to the syntax of first order logic. Upon analyzing the failure we find that the nonmonotonic logics we considered are inherently incapable of representing this kind of default reasoning. The development of utility theory in the second half of the 19th century by Gossen, Jevons, Menger, and Walras and its subsequent reinterpretation on an ordinal basis by Pareto led to an alternative formulation in terms of an ordering of all conceivable commodity bundles.
They are affected by confirmation bias that prevents them to objectively evaluate the information reliability. We conclude with a discussion of Web-based ontology tools we are developing to support this approach. Distinguant la dimension temporelle et la spontaneite intuitive de l'anticipation de l'action, l'A. Research on geospatial ontologies focuses on achieving interoperability by creating universal standards applied to data. In this paper, we investigate the role of semantic similarity as a quality indicator.
What is on the horizon?. As a case study, the document describes the steps which have been followed in the first year of the project discussing strengths and weaknesses of this approach. To properly support the software processes, applications should be integrated at different layers data, service, and process. In fact, the major problem in these procedures, is the need to understand the schema semantics. What do we have today instead? It aims at modeling the smart grid components, their features and properties, allowing the achievement of the smart grid objectives.
Several variations of this definition exist. Although ontologies were originally motivated by the need for sharable and reusable knowledge bases, the reuse and sharing of ontologies themselves is still limited because the ontology users and other designers do not always share the same assumptions as the original designers. Reciprocally, research in the information sciences raises specific ontological questions which call for further philosophical investigations. The tools of formal ontology address precisely these needs, but a real effort is required in order to apply such philosophical tools to the domain of information systems. Researchers in all these areas are becoming increasingly aware of the need for serious engagement with ontology, understood as a general theory of the types of entities and relations making up their respective domains of enquiry, to provide a solid foundation for their work. As ontologies have been applied in new and exciting domains such as the World Wide Web, bioinformatics, and geographical information systems, it has become evident that there is a need for ontologies that have been developed with solid theoretical foundations based on philosophical, linguistic and logical analysis. We examine two critical ideas in software engineering: raising the level of abstraction, and the use of formal methods.