However, there is a lack of systematic research tracking the evolution of these informal financing systems, and no reliable investigation has been conducted into underground banking systems with regard to their connection with illegal and criminal activities. This unique study explores the relationship between informal financial systems, illegal migration and human smuggling. The empirical research on the financial element of illegal immigration suggests the important role of an underground banking system. The evidence generated from this research provides support for the illegal enterprise perspective. Regional Variance in Growth of Underground Banks in Fujian 7. Chinese illegal immigrants smuggled into the U. The evidence generated from this research provides support for the illegal enterprise perspective.
Although such activities are often relatively short term and small scale when compared with legal businesses, three major factors explain the cooperation that sometimes emerges among illegal entrepreneurs. Lists and discusses the possible indicators of criminal abuse: different charging, recording or collection methods for some clients, some large transactions not recorded, large sums transferred daily or from a single customer, unusual or unsound transactions, and transfers to traders or companies engaged in a very different kind of business or in illegal activities. With a focus on a border-spanning informal financial system from the perspective of their clients, this book elicits firsthand information from an extremely understudied population illustrating the motivation, patterns, and tendencies of their use of illegal fund transfer systems. This article contributes to the reemerging field of economic sociology by 1 delving into its classic roots to refine current concepts and 2 using examples from the immigration literature to explore the different forms in which social structures affect economic action. The findings show that as opposed to lineage-based networks, the networks based on regional dialect allowed illegal Fujianese immigrants, as well as underground bank proprietors, to take advantage of social capital inherent in the expatriate ethnic community. Various reports have indicated that they have played a significant role in the rapid growth of private enterprises by acting as loan-makers, informal foreign exchange dealers, and remitting agencies, through which large amounts of money have been moved domestically as well as across borders Tsai, 2002. Hawala has come under suspicion of being a tool in the hands of al Qaeda and other terrorists, so a series of measures and policies have been taken internationally for its regulation and control.
With a focus on a border-spanning informal financial system from the perspective of their clients, this book elicits firsthand information from an extremely understudied population illustrating the motivation, patterns, and tendencies of their use of illegal fund transfer systems. The authors argue that because there is insufficient theoretical and practical experience with formal and informal remittance regulation and supervision, international and domestic policies currently being developed should not impose an overly excessive level of regulation, which might stifle rather than promote the growth of an innovative yet accountable and transparent sector. Through the examination of the transnational movement of money, Linda Shuo Zhao provides a rich and nuanced account of the lives of smuggled Chinese in the United States. Transnational Crime, Crime Control and Security. Regional Variance in Growth of Underground Banks in Fujian 7. The findings show that the emergence of underground banks in the U. By showing how these mechanics make economic sense, the paper makes a contribution to more sensitive, informed, fair and consensual law enforcement.
Research on Chinese Underground Banks 3. The Central Role of Dialect-based Networks 11. Re-emergence of Chinese Underground Banks in Mainland China: State Policy and the Financial Environment 6. Research on Chinese Underground Banks 3. The research was funded by the Ministry of Justice of The Netherlands. Regulators need to be cautious and avoid ethnocentric approaches that may bring about counter-productive effects with respect to economic development and crime control. Interviews with Fujianese illegal immigrants in this study show that underground banks in the U.
It concludes with some policy implications. Abstract: This unique study explores the relationship between informal financial systems, illegal migration and human smuggling. Bibliography Includes bibliographical references pages 146-155 and index. The Main Clientele of Underground Banks 9. The evidence generated from this research provides support for the illegal enterprise perspective. Illegal enterprise—defined as the sale of illegal goods and services to customers who know that the goods or services are illegal—has long been a central part of the American underworld, but it has received little attention as a separate criminological category. The primary source of data came from in-depth interviews with thirty illegal immigrants in New York City and Philadelphia.
This paper outlines how informal transfer systems operate, and points to the difficulties inherent in investigating and regulating them. Information found in police records presents limited evidence concerning these activities. The propositions that summarize the different parts of the discussion attempt to move these concepts beyond sensitizing generalities to hypothesis-like statements that can guide future research. Moreover, the book addresses the important question: is the Chinese underground banking system an integral part of organized crime, or is it a new type of ethnic-specific illegal enterprise? The primary source of data came from in-depth interviews with thirty illegal immigrants in New York City and Philadelphia. Re-emergence of Chinese Underground Banks in Mainland China: State Policy and the Financial Environment -- 6. Needless to say, the perspec-tives of the clients of underground banks have rarely found a place in scholarly examination or in news reports. The financing of the illegal immigration process, however, is a vastly under explored area.
The evidence generated from this research provides support for the illegal enterprise perspective. Illegal Immigrants' Use of Underground Banks 12. Organized Crime or Illegal Enterprises 2. They served as a preferred means of fund transfers among Chinese illegals due to the unique service they offered, not necessarily because of the clients' illegal status, or coercive means by smuggling groups. Zapraszamy do zapoznania się z nowościami wydawnictwa Palgrave Macmillan.
The Shift Away from the Use of Underground Banks in Remittance Flows 13. The Main Clientele of Underground Banks 9. The Main Clientele of Underground Banks -- 9. This first qualitative study draws firsthand evidence from interviews made both in mainland China and in the United States. The operation of underground banks in China has been prohibited since 19981 and has been considered illegal in some states of the U.