We investigated the effect of high temperatures on daily mortality in three cities in Europe Budapest, London, and Milan , using a standard approach. There was no clear gradient in heat-related mortality across the deprivation quintiles in Budapest and London. Heat Waves in Italy: Cause Specific Mortality and the Role of Educational Level and Socio-Economic Conditions -- P. For Milan, we used the annual income median of residents by census tract after linking data from the Tax Register with the Milan Population Registry. The Human Health Consequences of Flooding in Europe: A Review -- S.
Heat Waves in Italy: Cause Specific Mortality and the Role of Educational Level and Socio-Economic Conditions P. Past and projected trends in London's urban heat island. Albeverio S, Jentsch V, Kantz H eds. Key Policy Implications of the Health Effects of Floods -- E. Socio-economic status indicators and census data were linked with mortality data for stratified analyses. Ingtegration of public heatlh with adaptation to climate change: Lessons learned and new directions. Is the Frequency and Intensity of Flooding Changing in Europe Z.
For the clothing, better education of the elderly in the possible advantages of high tech clothing materials is proposed, as well as education to their proper way of use. Moscow Smog of Summer 2002. Experts from 25 countries outlined their experiences and resources in the field of extreme weather events and climate change. Following the unusually hot summer of 2003 and the dramatic news from neighboring countries such as France, the Italian Minister of Health requested the Istituto Superiore di Sanita-Bureau of Statistics to undertake an epidemiologic study of mortality in Italy during Summer 2003 to investigate whether there had been an excess of deaths, with a particular focus on the elderly population. Criteria for the diagnosis of heat-related deaths: National Association of Medical Examiners. Effect of season and weather on pediatric emergency department use. Lessons from the Heat Wave Epidemic in France Summer 2003 L.
Lessons of the 2003 Heat Wave in France and Action Taken to Limit the Effects of Future Heat Waves T. A national system for the prevention of health effects of heat in Italy. Hogg, 2001: Characteristics of daily and extreme temperatures over Canada. A mortality increase of 3,134 deaths was observed, most of which 92 % occurred among persons aged 75 years and older. Racial responses appear similar on a national and seasonal level, but there are differential responses on a regional level. A mortality increase of 3,134 deaths was observed for 2003; most of them 92% were people aged 75 years and older. Conclusion We found broadly consistent determinants age, gender, and cause of death of heat related mortality in three European cities using a standard approach.
The heat effect was quantified assuming a linear increase in risk above a cut-point for each city. The Effects of Temperature and Heat Waves on Daily Mortality in Budapest, Hungary, 1970 — 2000 -- A. The risk was highest for the elderly age-group in London, whereas the non-elderly appeared to be at greatest risk from heat-related mortality from accidents and injuries in Budapest and Milan. Extreme Weather Events in Bulgaria for the Period 2001-2003 and Responses to Address Them R. Budapest and Milan have greater inter-annual temperature ranges because of their continental location.
Climate, 10 , 65— 82. Winter relationships are generally weaker, and cloudy, damp, snowy conditions are associated with the greatest mortality. Following the unusually hot summer this year and the dramatic news from neighboring countries such as France, the Italian Minister of Health requested an epidemiologic mortality study during summer 2003, to investigate whether there had been an excess of deaths in Italy, particularly for the elderly population. Heat exposure was modelled using average values of the temperature measure on the same day as death lag 0 and the day before lag 1. The estimates of heat effects for subgroups in Milan appear large compared to the corresponding subgroups in the other cities. This is strongly related to decreases in physical fitness and increases in the incidence of disabilities with ageing.
Global climate change is likely to be accompanied by an increase in frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Heat stroke, hypothermia, increased number of falls, and in home drowning are some of the problems that are identified to be associated with this reduced thermoregulatory capacity. Heatwaves: past and future impacts on health. The greatest increase was among the elderly; 2876 deaths 92% occurred among people aged 75 years and older, a more than one-fifth increase 21. Just recently more recognized is the effect of high temperatures in urban environments on human health.
Learning from Experience: Evolving Responses to Flooding Events in the United Kingdom M. The meeting recommendations were adopted at the Fourth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health, Budapest, Hungary, 2004. In summer, warm, humid, calm conditions especially at night relate to the highest mortality. Adjusted relationship between relative risk of death and mean temperature by cause of death. Navarra -- Projected changes in extreme weather and climate events in Europe? Objective: There is a need to develop cost-effective methods to support public health policy makers plan ahead and make robust decisions on protective measures to safeguard against severe impacts of extreme weather events and natural disasters in the future, given competing demands on the social and healthcare resources, large uncertainty associated with extreme events and their impacts, and the opportunity costs associated with making ineffective decisions. Heat also reduces the work performance resulting in an estimated output loss of between 0. Climate, 14 , 1959— 1976.
Efforts are being made to understand the lessons learnt from recent events, to evaluate the effectiveness of the measures taken and early warning systems in place, and to use the knowledge gained to target future activities. Indicator variables for day-of week and public holidays were included. The ability to thermoregulate typically decreases with age. Cold Extremes and Impacts on Health J. The aim of the study is to quantify climate induced health risks for Germany.
Models used range from simple instruments that attempt to mimic the human-environment heat exchange to complex thermophysiological models that simulate both internal and external heat and mass transfer, including related processes through protective clothing. Actions must be taken urgently to protect the environment of Europe and assure the health of its citizens. The assessment of the risk of human exposure to heat is a topic as relevant today as a century ago. © 2016 American Physiological Society. A System of Medical Service to assist the Population of Uzbekistan in the Case of Natural Catastrophes A.