The contemporary world is increasingly defined by dizzying flows of people and ideas. Trade was very important to the Mongols. Relying extensively on original Chinese sources and supplemented by Haw's wide knowledge of China, Marco Polo's China presents a convincing argument and concludes that his work is an accurate, important and useful source from an extraordinary period of Chinese history. The exchanges of hunting partners—cheetahs, elephants, and even birds—became diplomatic tools as well as serving to create an elite hunting culture that transcended political allegiances and ecological frontiers. He explores social and cultural exchanges, and how connections were maintained through faith and a common acceptance of Muslim law. The Mongols also provided merchants low rates of interest as long as they belonged to the Ortogh.
The sudden Mongol withdrawal from Hungary in 1242 has been explained by historians in several ways and no consensus about the reason has ever been reached. They sought to pre-empt any ambition that the Turanian rulers might harbour towards their land and welcome the new generation of sophisticated, worldly, and educated young princes and, as they had done so many times before, assimilate the migrants from north of the Oxus. Category: Art Author : John W. The Yuan era witnessed perhaps the greatest inter-civilisational contacts in world history and has thus begun to attract the attention of both scholars and the general public. The trade routes he created became lucrative pathways for commerce, but also for ideas, technologies, and expertise that transformed the way people lived.
Under Genghis Khan, the Mongol army never numbered more than 100,000 warriors, yet it subjugated more lands and people in twenty-five years than the Romans conquered in four hundred. Empirically, it shows in quantitative terms the extent of gender inequalities among Uyghur Muslims in Ürümchi and tests whether the gender inequalities are a difference in kind or in degree. The focus of this path-breaking study is the extensive exchanges between Iran and China. The Mongols realized this so they created Ortogh. Not surprisingly, in addressing the nature of cultural influence, and how it should or can be identified, measured, and assessed, these authors do not reach a consensus, but do shed light on issues of agency - Mongol, Chinese, and other - and in so doing offer up a wealth of fascinating detail about an era of broad interest to comparative historians of the premodern world as well as specialists on China. Perhaps most important, the peace imposed by the Mongols on much of Asia and their promotion of trade resulted in considerable interaction among merchants, scientists, artists, and missionaries of different ethnic groups--including Europeans. The Yuan era witnessed perhaps the greatest inter-civilisational contacts in world history and has thus begun to attract the attention of both scholars and the general public.
Many had seen the hand of God in the rise of the Mongols. These were extraordinary and tumultuous times. By unraveling the role of translation in cross-cultural communication, Knowledge in Translation highlights key moments of transmission, insight, and critical interpretation across linguistic and faith communities. Under the Song and the Mongols, the Muslim diaspora in China flourished as legal and economic ties were formalized. Allsen chronicles the vast range of traditions surrounding this fabled royal occupation. He and his brothers harboured the aim of extending the mercantile, political, and cultural power of the Chinggisid empire and its emerging new dynamic reincarnation under Möngke Khan, eldest of the brothers, by consolidating their grip over the southern half of the greater Chinggisid empire encompassing Iran, Tibet, and China.
By adopting political and economic institutions familiar to the local populations and recruiting native officials, they won over many of their non-Mongol subjects. The book will be of interest to students and scholars of ethnic studies, Chinese studies, Asian anthropology and cultural sociology. With a magisterial command of contemporary sources, literature, material culture, and archaeology, Thomas T. These inter-civilisational relations led to the first precise Western knowledge of East and South Asia and stimulated Europeans to discover new routes to the East. The Beijing government today faces unrest on its frontiers from peoples who reject its autocratic rule. The essays connect visual materials to funeral and religious practices, drama, poetry, literati life, travel, and trade. Author by : Thomas T.
Not surprisingly, in addressing the nature of cultural influence, and how it should or can be identified, measured, and assessed, these authors do not reach a consensus, but do shed light on issues of agency - Mongol, Chinese, and other - and in so doing offer up a wealth of fascinating detail about an era of broad interest to comparative historians of the premodern world as well as specialists on China. Journeys to the Other Shore challenges these stereotypes by charting the common ways in which Muslim and Western travelers negotiate the dislocation of travel to unfamiliar and strange worlds. The China we know is a product of these vast conquests. Contributors dismantle narrow, national ways of understanding Armenian literature; propose new frameworks for mapping the post-Ottoman Mediterranean world; and navigate the challenges of writing national history in a globalized age. This volume offers tangible evidence of the Western and Central Asian influences, via the Mongols, on Chinese, and to a certain extent Korean, medicine, astronomy, navigation, and even foreign relations. Under the Song and the Mongols, the Muslim diaspora in China flourished as legal and economic ties were formalized.
Turkic peoples and other Muslims played particularly vital roles in such transmissions. One recent work on the subject argues that Marco Polo never went to China at all, and other scholars have pointed out apparent mistakes and important omissions in Marco's writings, including his failure to mention the Great Wall, and his apparently erroneous description of the course of the Yellow River. Modern Eurasian and perhaps global history starts with the Mongol empire. Chaffee uncovers 700 years of history, from the eighth century, when Muslim communities first established themselves in southeastern China, through the fourteenth century, when trade all but ceased. This article takes issue with one such misinterpretation, the anachronistic view that the Strait of Melaka has been the principal sea route connecting the Indian Ocean with the South China Sea throughout most of recorded history. Chaffee shows how the policies of successive dynastic regimes in China combined with geopolitical developments across maritime Asia to affect the fortunes of Muslim communities.
This volume considers the complexities of knowledge exchange through the practice of translation over the course of a millennium, across fields of knowledge—cartography, health and medicine, material construction, astronomy—and a wide geographical range, from Eurasia to Africa and the Americas. He offers valuable comparisons to other colonial empires and discusses the legacy left by China's frontier expansion. Category: History Author : Thomas T. The essays connect visual materials to funeral and religious practices, drama, poetry, literati life, travel, and trade. Unlike previous Chinese dynasties, the Qing achieved lasting domination over the eastern half of the Eurasian continent.
Marco Polo's famous book about his journey to China, written in 1298, continues to be a subject of considerable controversy. A delegation from Qazvin had approached the newly enthroned emperor and requested that he extend his direct rule over the Iranian heartlands and appoint a prince to replace the ineffective and corrupt military regime, which had been in place since the early 1220s. Fighting his way to power on the remote steppes of Mongolia, Genghis Khan developed revolutionary military strategies and weaponry that emphasized rapid attack and siege warfare, which he then brilliantly used to overwhelm opposing armies in Asia, break the back of the Islamic world, and render the armored knights of Europe obsolete. Turkic peoples and other Muslims played particularly vital roles in such transmissions. Often understood as a kind of covert military training, the royal hunt was subject to the same strict discipline as that applied in war and was also a source of innovation in military organization and tactics. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988 ,123.
The Mongol invasions of Dali and Annam in the 1250s are also briefly examined, and it is pointed out that a Mongol army led by Uriyangkhadai successfully invaded Song from Annam in 1259, a fact that has often been overlooked. Spanning a millennium of cross-cultural interaction and exchange across the Mediterranean world, essays move between connected histories, frontier studies, comparative literature, and discussions of trauma, memory, diaspora, and visual culture. While the Mongols were an extremely destructive force in the premodern world, the Mongol Empire had stabilizing effects on the social, cultural and economic life of the inhabitants of the vast territory, allowing merchants and missionaries to transverse Eurasia. Chaffee shows how the policies of successive dynastic regimes in China combined with geopolitical developments across maritime Asia to affect the fortunes of Muslim communities. The Yuan era witnessed perhaps the greatest inter-civilisational contacts in world history and has thus begun to attract the attention of both scholars and the general public. This is a work of great erudition which crosses new scholarly boundaries in its analysis of communication and culture in the Mongol empire.