These could be argued to be indeed characteristic of at least written Kenyan English. Accordingly, this special issue examines the role that authenticity plays in the production and interpretation of stylization. The frequency counts of which requests would most likely be used and of those which were actually used show the request structures used in Kenyan English to be shorter and more limited in number than those in British English. This article discusses how stylization sheds light on the role of authenticity as an increasingly. At the phonological level, his speech was marked by omissions and substitutions of phonemes, but no typical features stood out as typical of his speech.
My analysis provides further documentation that interculturality is a continuously dynamic production of identities-in-practice Antaki and Widdicombe 1998 , rather than a consequence of fixed social characteristics. This chapter discusses the spatial turn that emerged in the humanities and the social sciences in the 1970s and discusses what it can offer to the study of language, migration, and mobility. Series Title: Responsibility: Christina Higgins. In Tanzania, I have studied codeswitching in the workplace and a range of Swahili-English linguistic hybridity in popular culture and in advertising. They are discussed from the point of view of second language acquisition and use, which provides a suitable framework for accounting for the variability which, as observed in this study, characterizes their use.
However, many practicing mainstream teachers. In this chapter, I make use of narrative analysis to illustrate the range of identity slippage Armour, 2000 which three expatriate women experienced while living in Tanzania and speaking Swahili as an additional language. Findings show that these three women did not take opportunities to identity slip up because of a number of obstacles stemming from their western-identified selves and from their high degree of intercultural awareness and worldliness. It is often the case, however, that multilinguals use English in hybrid and transcultural ways. As many societies become detraditionalized, links between languages, cultures, and places are no longer in reciprocal relationships. This article explores the identities of a group of elementary teachers who participated in a prof.
After illustrating intersecting scapes in sociolinguistic terms, I explore the relevance of these ideas to identity formation among language learners, using three case studies. In both cases, the subjects were University of Nairobi students. This participant resists the ethnification Day 1998 he receives, however, and through this resistance, he succeeds in reintegrating himself into the group. But in this book, Christina Higgins jettisons that norm and brings a daring yet refreshing new voice to the debate by focusing on the appropriation of English as a local language and mapping the politics of its co-existence with indigenous languages in Kenya and Tanzania. Next, I discuss how the confluence of transnationals and cosmopolitan urban residents in Tanzania provides a range of identity options for learners of Swahili that challenge nation-state-based associations of language. In the context of inequality, then, the purpose of the workshops was to encourage the participants to learn from one another and to find ways to collaborate so that they could better treat patients in their area.
The E-mail message field is required. The disjunction between the two groups is accomplished through codeswitching, shared humor, and pronoun usage. This reintegration is accomplished through affiliative language structures including codeswitching, teasing, and the nomination of new shared categories by the ethnified participant. The relocation of hybrid languages transforms the linguistic landscapes of these new domains, and in the process, alters the former meanings as well. With reference, as the target, to the grammar of what one could call standard 'international' English, the features in question are non-target-like in some way and in this paper they are referred to also as 'Kenyan English forms'. Her very detailed information about the sociolinguistics of mixed languages in Tanzania and Kenya is particularly impressive.
The chapter ends with a brief discussion of neoliberalism in language education, noting that despite the potential emancipatory nature of late modernity, flows are still characterized by inequities since they are still governed by the Global North and enacted in ways that perpetuate center-periphery disparities reminiscent of earlier periods of modernity. But, with acceptability ratings for some other structures being as low as only two and eighteen percent, the results equally suggest that some apparently very common features of Kenyan English would only be accepted in spoken, rather than written language. By treating non-mainstream languages as subject matter in their own right, without reference or comparison to the dominant language, we argue that these languages earn more respect and acknowledgment in school settings and beyond. At the same time, transcultural flows offer speakers more opportunity to cross and challenge borders linguistically. The data from conversations and observations audio- and video-recorded for 154 hours show that Onsanse has picked up an amount of vocabulary that enables him to interact with people especially in Dholuo and Kiswahili.
From a variety of sources, this paper has gleaned a substantial amount of information on specific aspects of the vocabulary of the Kenyan English variety. This article examines how a group of Tanzanian journalists co-construct their identities as members of the same culture by producing talk that aligns them with several shared membership categories Sacks 1972, 1979, 1992. This book explores how multilingual East Africans make use of English as a local resource in their everyday practices by examining a range of domains, including workplace conversation, beauty pageants, hip hop and advertising. The project was carried out within a critical language awareness framework that treated students as knowledge producers and which provided them with the opportunity to use their own communities and languages as repositories of knowledge and as sites for learning about the relationship between language and society. She has developed a framework that places multilingual practices at the theoretical centre while responding brilliantly to the growing relevance of social theory in sociolinguistics.
Specifically, the paper looks at how written requests are made in Kenyan English with reference to how they are in British English, its direct ancestor. Drawing on data from the mediascapes of hip hop and advertising, I show that rather than simply adapting English to fit local purposes, East Africans exploit the multivocality Higgins, 2009 of the language to simultaneously index the local and the global. This chapter examines how late modernity encourages new approaches to language education as a res. Subsequently, however, the healers are delegitimized in their interactions with the biomedical doctors through unequal forms of address and through the conflation of indigenous healing with witchcraft. The analysis assesses the efforts of the non-governmental organization that organized the workshops to create a culture of inclusion and equality among the doctors. On the other hand, Indigenous language educators and learners express a strong attachment to place as a means of self-preservation and local epistemologies in the face of globalization.
In this chapter, I explore how intersecting scapes produce linguistic and cultural hybridities by examining how multilinguals in East Africa reterritorialize global, west-based forms of English in their local contexts. . This paper focuses on the range of sociolinguistic variation in Swahili to call attention to the need for foreign language classrooms to expose students to the array of speech variants that many Africans use in their everyday conversations. Despite this apparent lack of social inclusion, adoptee-returnees do claim belonging through their participation in the third place of the adoptee-returnee social network in Seoul in a myriad of ways. We show that student contributions which do not follow dominant codes are not rewarded, and that although students ask their teachers for guidance in using these codes appropriately, their requests are not effectively addressed. The paper concludes that the development of such forms was inevitable: it is only natural that when a language is so widely used as English is in Kenya as a second language, a number of such forms will come about as a result of imperfect learning of the target language, and 'stick'.