Investigations on the Ethanol Cue as a Compound Stimulus 348 J. Characteristics of Diverse Drug Discriminations 329 E. The drug discrimination paradigm was used to evaluate in rats the ability of the discriminate response to either 0. This plant grows in East Africa and in southern Arabia, and the inhabitants of these regions frequently chew khat because of its stimulating properties. General Scope and Introductory Comments 3 B. The results indicate the importance of complete crossover designs in combination with dose response determinations when attempting to classify drugs according to their discriminable properties.
The use of the drug discrimination paradigm for studying hallucinogenic agents. Drug Discrimination: Applications in Drug Abuse Research, R. Drug Discrimination: A Synopsis of the Approach 10 D. Drug Interactions: Acute Dosing 420 D. Administration of haloperidol, a selective dopamine receptor blocker, completely abolished the amphetamine discrimination, whereas alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor blockade had no effect.
This file is a part of the Rhodium site archive. Choice of Dose and Pre-session Injection Interval 49 C. Design and synthesis of propranolol analogues as serotonergic agents. This compound was found to produce strong discriminative cues i. In addition, it appears entirely possible that utility may still emerge for the use of hallucinogens in treating alcoholism, substance abuse, and certain psychiatric disorders. Advantage of the Drug Discrimination Procedure 14 2.
Gamma-carboline derivatives as potential serotonergic agents. Rats trained to discriminate between the stimulus properties of 0. The usefulness of this approach is readily apparent. Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholinergic receptor Agents 177 E. Finally, the hallucinogen-induced parallel decrease of the N170 visual evoked potential and increased medial P1 potential will be discussed as key mechanisms for inducing a dysbalance between global integration and early visual gain that may explain several hallucinogen-induced visual experiences, including visual hallucinations, illusions, and intensifications.
The amphetamine stimulus was blocked by pretreatment with haloperidol but not by cinanserin, methysergide, or xylamidine. Although the procedure does require some effort to implement, it can be an extremely important tool for understanding drug action. As an example of the application of the drug discrimination paradigm, a review of its use in studying several classes of hallucinogenic agents has been included. Basic Parameters of Nicotine Discrimination 468 D. However, recent studies suggest a potentially more nuanced role for stereochemistry in abuse-related effects of mephedrone.
Substance Abuse 1988, 9, 45-51. Three series of bicyclic, semirigid congeners of beta-phenethylamine have been prepared for evaluation of the effect of ring size and of concomitant conformational variation on biological activity in a variety of assays for adrenergic and dopaminergic actions. Heterocyclic analogs of am-phetamine: thioureas, dithiocarbamates, and negatively substi-tuted amides. Drug Discrimination in Receptor Pharmacology 484 C. However, from a clinical and forensic toxicology perspective, it is important to be able to identify the possible presence of such compounds and their potential metabolites in biological fluids and tissues, also to follow any trend in their use and need for control measures to be introduced. Removal of the α-methyl group or substitution on the aromatic ring was found to abolish the stimulant effect. In these words, Combe first described state dependent learning in 1830.
The two pigeons emitted predominantly d-amphetamine appropriate responses when the training dose 1. Thus, cathinone was equi-potent to d-amphetamine in this behavioral paradigm. The results suggest that the enhanced behavioral response to amphetamine may be due either to an increased sensitivity of dopaminergic neurons in the mesolimbic area, or to an enhanced release of dopamine by amphetamine. Behavioral and other biological effects, including antiarthritic, passive cutaneous anaphylactic, and antimicrobial, were observed. Preface xv Contributors xix Part I 1 Richard A. The types of structural variation of the amphetamine molecule that were investigated included a benz-fusion of the aromatic nucleus, b alpha-demethylation of the alkyl side chain, c conversion of the benzylic methylene to a carbonyl group, and d conformational restriction of the side chain.
An Introduction to Drug Discrimination 3 A. Stimulants of this monoamine reduce food intake and weight gain and increase energy expenditure, both in animals and in humans. Stressing the practical aspects of drug discrimination, including types of procedures, study design, data, and interpretation, the book details the advantages and limitations of drug discrimination studies versus other pharmacologic evaluations. Habituation is a decrease in startle magnitude following repeated presentation of a startling stimulus. Water-deprived rats were trained to press either the left or the right bar in a test chamber according to whether they were injected with a central nervous system stimulant or 0. Phytocannabinoids and Metabolites 260 L. RationaleSynthetic cathinones have emerged as the newest class of abused monoamine transporter substrates.
In: Introduction to the Principles of Drug Design and Action H. Using Human Drug Discrimination to Elucidate the Neuropharmacology of Amphetamines 444 D. Analysis of the structure-activity relationships of sigma receptor ligands. Rats were trained to discriminate + -amphetamine sulfate 5. Noteworthy is the ability of several aminotetralins and aminoindans to increase the hot-plate reaction time without eliciting dopaminergic effects. This study compared effectiveness of the S - and R + enantiomers of cathinone and 4-methylcathinone to produce in vitro monoamine release and in vivo abuse-related behavioral effects in rats.
Applicability and General Comments 217 B. . The results indicate that cathinone exerts discriminative response control within five minutes of intraperitoneal injection and that it has a shorter duration than amphetamine and cocaine. Two Further Mysteries 491 H. Further studies on N-methyl-1- 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl -2-aminopropane as a discriminative stimulus: Antagonism by 5-hydroxytrptamine antagonists.