The problem is that once you have gotten your nifty new product, the 2003 suzuki burgman 400 repair manual gets a brief glance, maybe a once over, but it often tends to get discarded or lost with the original packaging. These associations appear to be biologically plausible and merit further study. In model 1, unadjusted associations of the B vitamins with cognitive test scores were examined. The respective survey weighted means for the 4 outcome variables, math, reading, block design, and digit span scores, for folate and vitamin B-12 are also shown in. To date, large population-based studies have not addressed potential associations of B vitamins and cognitive function in children. Variables Folate sample Vitamin B-12 sample n 3970 2014 n unweighted % weighted Sex Male 1930 50.
This test assesses working memory and attention span. Intervention studies with longitudinal follow-up are needed to verify that higher folate concentrations lead to higher cognitive test scores. As a result, deficiencies in folate and vitamin B-12 may have direct physiological effects on brain functions, with important implications for cognitive function. After excluding participants missing folate and vitamin B-12 measurements, cognitive test scores, or poverty-income ratio, sample sizes for folate and vitamin B-12 analyses were 3970 74. Discussion The aim of this study was to examine the association between folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations and cognitive test scores. In the hypomethylation hypothesis, folate directly affects the central nervous system. Indicator variables for iron and vitamins A, C, and E were created based on values above or equal to 1 or below 0 the median.
Age-standardized scores were used in analyses. Although studies suggest a relation between folate and vitamin B-12 and cognitive function in the elderly population, there is relatively less evidence regarding these vitamins and children's cognitive function. In the unadjusted models , there was a general increase in test scores as folate concentrations increased. Serum folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured, along with performance, on the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Distributions of the test scores, folate, and vitamin B-12 were examined using univariate analysis and histograms. The nutritional status variable is a sum of these 4 variables, ranging from 0 to 4.
Note that the table shows the unweighted, actual numbers which are heavily oversampled for some subgroups such as non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans but population weighted percentages. Include other documents by this user. Deficiencies in these B vitamins can influence multiple aspects of neuronal physiology, including neurotransmitter synthesis of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, and axon and myelin metabolism —. In the block design test, the child is asked to arrange 9 blocks into particular shapes. The 10th and 90th percentiles for folate were 3. Specimen collection and laboratory measurement Blood specimens were collected at the mobile examination and home examination centers by medical technologists and phlebotomists. In addition, serum folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured only once; therefore, it does not accurately represent long-term status.
Associations of B vitamins with cognitive performance were assessed using linear regression models adjusted for various covariates. Maybille 2033 Scissor Lift Diagram ebookman. The association between higher folate concentrations and higher scores in the reading and block design tests may be due to the biological mechanisms in which folate and vitamin B-12 are involved. Statistical power was reduced due to smaller sample sizes and folate was not associated with math scores in either of the age strata. Three intervention studies suggested that increased concentrations of both folate and vitamin B-12 may improve cognitive performance. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. In the largest study to date, higher folate concentrations were associated with better reading and block design scores.
The vials were refrigerated or frozen until they were sent to the laboratories for analysis. The digit span test has 2 parts: a digits forward and a digits backward. The detailed testing procedure is described elsewhere. Download and print this document. These associations appear to be biologically plausible and merit further study.
All collection materials were prescreened for contamination of lead, cadmium, and selenium. You can change your cookie settings at any time. You may find 2003 Suzuki Burgman 400 Repair Manual document other than just manuals as we also make available many user guides, specifications documents, promotional details, setup documents and more. Vitamin B-12 was not associated with any of the test scores. In addition, the results for folate are consistent with the findings from a study done by Veena et al. Results The final sample sizes used for analyses for folate and vitamin B-12 were 3970 and 2014, respectively. No interactions were noted between age and vitamin B-12 quartiles for any of the cognitive tests.
Furthermore, they also did not find any evidence that higher vitamin B-12 concentrations were associated with higher cognitive test scores. Introduction Folate and vitamin B-12 are water-soluble vitamins that are important in neurological and psychological functions ,. Briefly, the reading test asks the child to recognize and name letters, pronounce words, spell words, and write single words. However, these studies had various limitations, such as small sample sizes , ; limited cognitive assessments ; use of dietary recall data to assess intake ; joint interventions with multiple supplements, thereby making it difficult to distinguish effects of B vitamins from other micronutrients ; and uncertain generalizability to populations where micronutrient deficiencies are not as common ,. All regression models were repeated using continuous log folate and log vitamin B-12 instead of folate and vitamin B-12 quartiles and the results were similar results not shown.